Perilous complacency. Scientists say stay home.



This article will share cautions of scientists with readers who may have become tired of ‘social distancing’: between COVID-19 and Cabin Fever, the later is a comparative breeze to cope with.

Stay home. Wear a respirator (N95) if you go out.

Five other things:

  1. Scientists now say COVID-19 did not come from a laboratory. FPMag will show readers the scientific communities’ map of transmission paths for thousands of different SARS2 strains and how they spread around the world. It’s an animal virus, animals whose habitat humans encroached is both a true statement and the likely explanation for this and other viruses soon to hit.
  2. COVID-19 is not Chinese although many Asians caught a strain of the virus in places where pangolins can be found. Asia.
  3. COVID-19 kills anyone who intakes too heavy a load of the SARS-CoV-2.
  4. Most politicians have been telling you whopping lies, led by a scurrilous United States administration that has lost all credibility with legitimate public servants around the globe but has the support of a handful of scalawags operating tinpot dictatorships. Nonetheless America’s medical community works quietly and discreetly with other global communities.
  5. Climate change and humans’ careless damage to the environment has encroached on the habitats of other species, destroyed 83% of Earth’s wild mammals, leaving their microbial pathogens no choice but to seek other mammals. You.

 


Update and Analysis by Micheal John and Sharon Santiago

The author whose PhD is in Public Health is the team lead for a multi-partner virus test and treat program for HIV-infected war-zone rape survivors. The project is aimed at testing new medications while helping patients who are mostly sexual violence survivors. 


Updates from what the foremost Doctors are saying  this week.

On Sunday, Dr. Deborah Birx, a White House coronavirus task force expert, said to Chuck Todd in an appearance on NBC’s highly cited Meet the Press, that “Social distancing will be with us through the summer to really ensure that we protect one another as we move through these phases.”

On Monday World Health Organization, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said at a WHO briefing, “The world should have listened to the WHO carefully.”

“We advised the whole world to implement a comprehensive public health approach – find, test, contact tracing and so on… The countries [which] followed that are in a better position than others.”

The point is well taken with a quick glance at global covid-19 statistics  which indicates an enormous gap in performances fighting the COVID-19 outbreak. Nations like Taiwan, South Korea, Germany, New Zealand, Iceland and the countries shown in the following list which in each case are women-led nations.


Dr. Tedros is correct. Nations following the Test-Treat-Trace protocols have suppressed the impact of the virus on their populations. Readers can check each nation here.

  • Chancellor Angela Merkel (Germany)
  • President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (Liberia)
  • President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner (Argentina)
  • Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed (Bangledesh)
  • President Dalia Grybauskaite (Lithuania)
  • Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar (Trinidad and Tobago)
  • President Dilma Rousseff (Brazil)
  • President Atifete Jahjaga (Kosovo)
  • Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt (Denmark)
  • Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller (Jamaica)
  • President Park Geun-hye (South Korea)
  • Prime Minister Alenka Bratusek (Slovenia)
  • Prime Minister Sibel Siber (Cyprus (North))
  • Prime Minister Aminata Touré (Senegal)
  • Prime Minister Erna Solberg (Norway)
  • Prime Minister Laimdota Straujuma (Latvia)
  • President Catherine Samba-Panza (Central African Republic)
  • President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca (Malta)
  • Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz (Poland)
  • President Tsai Ing-wen (Taiwan)
  • de facto President Carrie Lam (Hong Long)
  • Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern (New Zealand)

Foremost epidemic authority, Prof. Ferguson, warns that early ending of social distancing could bring about startling death rate increases.

Also on Monday, Imperial College epidemiologist Professor Neil Ferguson said  that “if the healthy go back to work while the vulnerable remain in lockdown there will be a huge increase in virus fatalities [in the United Kingdom] and as many as 100,000 more deaths.”

Dr. Ferguson also noted that he has not seen a single country achieve the level of shielding necessary to allow for a reduction in social distancing.

Ferguson and other scientists are saying what Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has been telling Canadians in a global breath of solitary sober sanity, “We’ll wait for a vaccine.”

According to Dr. Ferguson, “social isolation will need to be kept in place until a pharmaceutical intervention is found, whether that is a vaccine or treatment drugs, and one is unlikely within the next year”.

Dr. Tony Fauci says testing and tracing in the USA must be accelerated to avoid a bad winter .

On Tuesday, Dr. Anthony Fauci, who heads the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases says that “the blueprint for testing requires cooperative efforts of both US States and the federal government.”

Dr. Fauci is opposes American states reopening businesses prematurely, saying it could cause “a rebound to get us right back in the same boat that we were in a few weeks ago…   it’s then inevitable that we will have a return of the virus, or maybe even that it never went away.”

If you thought Climate Change was a hoax, that paradigm can get you killed by a microorganism that needs to find a new plentiful host species as mankind clobbers the microbes’ last host.

Humans know very little about SARS-CoV-2 but what is known about the current outbreak is that it is far from over.

Bats, pangolins and camels know more than humans, hence scientists are studying how these mammals manage to suppress their own immune system from overreaction and how their T-cells fight the virus into dormancy.

Humans have been doing that successfully with HIV for the past decade with prophylaxis medications and have only just begun to understand the gains fully. Some 170,000 HIV patients have had extraordinarily good outcomes.

One thing that has been learned is that research takes a long time. Vaccines take seemingly forever. Treatments are all about protecting and also preparing human cells and in particular the T-cells, the body’s soldiers that fight pathogens.

It’s been decades since the fight against HIV began.

In 20 years of HIV study and treatment, humankind is close to a vaccine and has a significant treatment but may be on the verge of a cure.

Health science has managed to reduce HIV  viral loads in patients to undetectable levels. The solutions are very sophisticated relative to mankind’s limited understanding of these thousands of viruses.

Scientists suggest this pandemic is still in its infancy the COVID-19 outbreak isn’t a toddler yet. The sickness is horrible and the death from it is worse, obviously. (Citing recent study )

According to the WHO, in the United States and in Canada as well as in Africa and in most parts of South America, the novel coronavirus pandemic  is just getting under way. COVID-19 is killing babies and grandpas.

“Most of FPMag‘s writers are professional health care workers and have seen patients die from their body’s reaction to this ferocious virus. Rest assured it is an awful thing to see and worse to experience,” notes Melissa Hemingway.

SARS2 is killing pregnant mothers and killing men of any age—mostly men but it can and does kill anyone. Infants seem to be assuredly given a death sentence if they are significantly infected.

Virus load can set the outcome of an infection say frontliners.

“The determining factor is virus load—how many airborne particles of the virus a person takes into their respiratory system, or how many SARS-CoV-2 particles they put there with their hands after picking it up from a smooth surface or the front of their mask,” notes Karinna Angeles, a front-line nurse practitioner with The Nurses Without Borders.

The study of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is intense.

Bats, camels, and pangolins are sources of viruses matching the one causing COVID-19. There are thousands of strains.

It is unknown which one is the precise source of the current outbreak. It may not be only one. While this novel coronavirus evolves and there are literally thousands of genomes (strains), it is generally considered to be ‘stable’ by most experts.

North America. Transmission of COVID-19 disease for Canada mostly from Europe & USA. Photo Art: Rosa Yamamoto FPMag

Based on published metagenomic data, a recent study conducted by TaoZhang , Qunfu Wu and Zhigang provides the first report on a potential close relationship of Pangolin-CoV to SARS-CoV-2 (which causes COVID-19), discovered from dead Malayan pangolins after extensive rescue efforts. Aside from Bat-CoV RaTG13, the Pangolin-CoV is the coronavirus  most closely related to SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing the current deadly pandemic.

“But we still do not know exactly, and may never know from which animal the SARS-CoV-2 has crossed from one mammal to another,” says Dr. Qunfu Wu.

There are thousands of complete genomes available now increasing by hundreds every day. Each is only slightly different implying that the virus is relatively stable. It likely will mutate as do others.

There are thousands of complete genomes available now increasing by hundreds every day. Each is only slightly different implying that the virus is relatively stable. It likely will mutate as do others. Photo Art: Rosa Yamamoto FPMag

Humans are the most prolific of all mammals. As other species are stressed by human habitat encroachment the microbes will make their moves for survival.

Environmental scientists Yinon M. Bar-OnRob Phillips, and Ron Milo concluded in early 2018 that while humans are just 0.01% of all life they have destroyed 83% of wild mammals in a study “The biomass distribution on Earth“,  reported by the National Academy of Sciences in the United States.


The Impact of Humanity on the Biosphere.

“Over the relatively short span of human history, major innovations, such as the domestication of livestock, adoption of an agricultural lifestyle, and the Industrial Revolution, have increased the human population dramatically and have had radical ecological effects. Today, the biomass of humans (≈0.06 Gt C; SI Appendix, Table S9) and the biomass of livestock (≈0.1 Gt C, dominated by cattle and pigs; SI Appendix, Table S10) far surpass that of wild mammals, which has a mass of ≈0.007 Gt C (SI Appendix, Table S11). This is also true for wild and domesticated birds, for which the biomass of domesticated poultry (≈0.005 Gt C, dominated by chickens) is about threefold higher than that of wild birds (≈0.002 Gt C; SI Appendix, Table S12). In fact, humans and livestock outweigh all vertebrates combined, with the exception of fish. Even though humans and livestock dominate mammalian biomass, they are a small fraction of the ≈2 Gt C of animal biomass, which primarily comprises arthropods (≈1 Gt C; SI Appendix, Tables S13 and S14), followed by fish (≈0.7 Gt C; SI Appendix, Table S15). Comparison of current global biomass with prehuman values (which are very difficult to estimate accurately) demonstrates the impact of humans on the biosphere.

Read: “The biomass distribution on Earth” (Yinon M. Bar-On, Rob Phillips, and Ron Milo)

Conclude that mammalian species will face a rise of fungi and molds, parasitic and pathogenic microbial anomalies.

Microbes must evolve and even mutate to meet the process of change as Earth temperatures rise, and the balance of living things also changes.


Coping with viruses is slow work.  What we have learned from HIV virus: AntiRetroviral Therapy (ART) using several  ARV medicines

Since we mentioned HIV Treatment, here is an illustration that explains the treatment concept of AntiRetroviral Therapy (ART) using several  ARV medicines in combination (now often in a single pill) aimed at suppressing the virus in the human body to undetectable levels (the best that can be achieved so far).

AntiretToviral Therapy (ART) could be obsolete someday, as scientists have successfully used immune cells to kick the dormant form of HIV out of its hiding place and destroy it. These findings may soon lead to an HIV vaccine that also has benefits for patients who have achieved virus suppression.

Will ART work against the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus? We do not know but it is under test.

HIV treatment plan of “Test and Treat”
1. Get tested.
2. If positive, get treated.
3. Stick to your treatment plan to suppress the virus & reduce its presence in your body to undetectable or barely detectable levels.
You will be healthier and will not be spreading the virus.
Info Source: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Photo Art: Rosa Yamamoto FPMag

 

Each of the following labs have contributed a different strain genome or more to the global data bank. In each case their respective nations’ population should be proud of their work.

Over 3000 Genomes. These are the laboratory sources that submitted to the central databank to provide the graphs shown above.

Caution: It takes a scientist to draw valid conclusions but only after the pandemic has run its course and all the data are in. What’s important to note is the diversity of strains and the ability to sequence them. We know the disease comes from other mammals, not chemistry kids, labs or mad scientists. We also know it’s happening because of climate change, pollution and most of all the combined human encroachment on the habitats of many species.

  1. ACT Pathology, The Canberra Hospital
  2. African Centre of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Diseases , Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
  3. AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratories
  4. Akershus University Hospital, Department for Microbiology and Infectious Disease Control
  5. Alaska State Virology Laboratory
  6. Albertsen lab, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Denmark
  7. Andersen lab at Scripps Research
  8. Andersen Lab, The Scripps Research Institute
  9. Area de Secuenciacion del Laboratorio de Virologia del Hospital de Ninos Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez
  10. ARGO Open Lab Platform for Genome Sequencing
  11. Arizona Department of Health Services
  12. Arizona State University
  13. Arizona State University Health Services
  14. ARS Algarve – Laboratorio Laura Ayres
  15. Auckland Hospital
  16. AZ Department of Health Services
  17. AZ SPHL, Arizona Department of Health Services
  18. Bamrasnaradura Hospital
  19. BCCDC Public Health Laboratory
  20. Beijing Genomics Institute
  21. Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology
  22. Bergthaler laboratory, CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
  23. Bethany Hospital
  24. BGI & Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences & General Hospital of Central Theater Command of People’s Liberation Army of China
  25. BGI-shenzhen & The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
  26. BioInfoExperts, LLC
  27. Bioinformatics Laboratory – LNCC
  28. Bioinformatics Laboratory / LNCC
  29. Bioinformatics Research Group, Szentagothai Research Centre
  30. Bioinformatics Research Group, Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs
  31. Biolab Diagnostic Laboratories
  32. Brian D. Allgood Army Community Hospital
  33. Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology
  34. Bureau of Laboratories
  35. Cabinet Medical
  36. Cadham Provincial Laboratory
  37. California Department of Health
  38. California Department of Public Health
  39. Center for Disease prevetion and Control of PLA
  40. Center for Global Health, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center
  41. Center for Virology, Medical University of Vienna
  42. Center of Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hospital Hygiene, University of Duesseldorf
  43. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Lishui
  44. Centers for Disease Control, R.O.C.
  45. Central chest Institute of Thailand
  46. Central Public Health Laboratory/Octavio Magalhaes Institute from the Ezequiel Dias Foundation
  47. Central Virology Laboratory
  48. Centre for Dengue Research
  49. Centre for Human and Zoonotic Virology , College of Medicine University of Lagos/Lagos University Teaching Hospital , part of the Laboratory Network of the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control
  50. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology – Public Health
  51. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services
  52. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Public Health
  53. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology- Public Health
  54. Centre Hositalier Universitaire de Rouen Laboratoire de Virologie
  55. Centre Hospitalier Compiegne Laboratoire de Biologie
  56. Centre Hospitalier de Bourg en Bresse
  57. Centre Hospitalier de Macon
  58. Centre Hospitalier de Valence
  59. Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Nantes Laboratoire de Virologie
  60. Centre Hospitalier Rene Dubois Laboratoire de Microbiologie – Bat A
  61. Centre Hospitalier Saint Joseph Saint Luc
  62. Centro Hospital do Porto, E.P.E. – H. Geral de Santo Antonio
  63. Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Sao Joao, Porto
  64. CH Compiegne Laboratoire de Biologie
  65. CH Jean de Navarre Laboratoire de Biologie
  66. CH Jeanne de Navarre Laboratoire de Biologie
  67. Chan-Zuckerberg Biohub
  68. Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Virology
  69. Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Virology; Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Bundeswehr, Munich
  70. CHBarreiro Montijo
  71. Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health
  72. Chiu Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco
  73. CHMT
  74. Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  75. CHRU Bretonneau – Serv. Bacterio-Virol.
  76. CHRU Pontchaillou – Laboratoire de Virologie
  77. CHTMAD
  78. CHU – Hopital Cavale Blanche – Labo. de Virologie
  79. CHU Coimbra – Pediatrico
  80. CHU Coimbra
  81. CHUA – Faro
  82. CHULC – H Curry Cabral
  83. CHULC – H D Estefania
  84. Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Chile
  85. Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago, Chile
  86. Clinical Diagnostics Laboratory, Diagnostic & Experimental Pathology, Lilly Research Laboratories
  87. Clinical Laboratory
  88. Clinical Microbiology Lab
  89. Clinique AVERAY LA BROUSTE, Med. Polyvalente
  90. CMIP
  91. CNR Virus des Infections Respiratoires – France SUD
  92. Collaboration between the University of Melbourne at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, and the Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory
  93. COMPLEJO ASISTENCIAL UNIVERSITARIO DE BURGOS
  94. Connecticut State Department of Public Health
  95. COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium
  96. COVID-19 Network Investigations Alliance
  97. CR&WISCO GENERAL HOSPITAL
  98. CT-Dr. Katherine A. Kelley State Public Health Lab
  99. Dasman Diabetes Institute
  100. Dasman Diabetes Institute and Virology Laboratory Ministry of Health
  101. DC Public Health Lab/ Dept. of Forensic Sciences
  102. deCODE genetics
  103. Departamento de Biologia y genetica molecular, IACA Laboratorios.
  104. Department for Virology, Molecular Biology and Genome Research, R. G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research, National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia.
  105. Department of Clinical Laboratory, the First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province
  106. Department of Clinical Microbiology
  107. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Kettegaard Alle 30, 2650 Hvidovre.
  108. Department of Clinical Pathology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital
  109. Department of Clinical Pathology, Tuen Mun Hospital, 23 Tsing Chung Koon Road, Tuen Mun, N.T.
  110. Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Faculty of Health and Social Science, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  111. Department of Healthcare Biotechnology
  112. Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, The Florey Institute, The Medical School, University of Sheffield
  113. Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris
  114. Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma , Italy
  115. Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
  116. Department of Inspection,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Lishui
  117. Department of Internal Medicine, Triemli Hospital
  118. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lin-Kou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
  119. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lin-Kou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
  120. Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital
  121. Department of Medical Microbiology
  122. Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya
  123. Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre
  124. Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand 2. Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases – Health Science Centre 3. Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
  125. Department of microbiology laboratory,Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  126. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  127. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  128. Department of Microbiology, Guangdong Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention
  129. Department of Microbiology, Institute for Viral Diseases, College of Medicine, Korea University
  130. Department of Microbiology, PathWest QEII Medical Centre
  131. Department of Microbiology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  132. Department of Neurovirology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience
  133. Department of Pathology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine
  134. Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Hospital
  135. Department of Pathology, Toshima Hospital
  136. Department of Pathology, United Christian Hospital
  137. Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge
  138. Department of Virology and Immunology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Huslab Finland
  139. Department of Virology Faculty of Medicine, Medicum University of Helsinki
  140. Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  141. Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  142. Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  143. Department of Virus and Microbiological Special Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenahgen S
  144. Department of Virus and Microbiological Special diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  145. Departments of Pathology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine
  146. Dept. of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  147. Dept. of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  148. Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, National Veterinary Services Laboratories
  149. District Surveillence Unit
  150. Division of Consolidated Laboratories
  151. Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services
  152. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine
  153. Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Zurich
  154. Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Laboratory Control of Infectious Diseases, Korea Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention
  155. Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  156. Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre
  157. Dunedin Hospital
  158. Dutch COVID-19 response team
  159. E. Gulbja Laboratorija
  160. EHPAD – Residences les Cedres
  161. Erasmus Medical Center
  162. ErasmusMC
  163. Filter by Submitting Lab
  164. FL Bur. of Public Health Laboratories-Jacksonville
  165. FL Bureau of Health Laboratories Tampa
  166. FL Bureau of Public Health Laboratories-Miami
  167. FL Bureau of Public Health Laboratories-Tampa
  168. Foundation Elisabeth-Tweesteden Ziekenhuis
  169. Foundation Pamm
  170. FSBSI “Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences” & NRC “Kurchatov institute”
  171. FSBSI “Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences”
  172. Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  173. GA Department of Public Health
  174. GA Department of Public Health Laboratory
  175. Gen Era Diagnostics Inc.
  176. General Hospital of Central Theater Command of People’s Liberation Army of China
  177. Genomic Laboratory
  178. Genomic Laboratory , Istanbul Technical University
  179. GH Les Portes du Sud
  180. GH Nord Essonne Service de Biologie clinique
  181. GIGA Medical Genomics
  182. Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies
  183. Grubaugh Lab – Yale School of Public Health
  184. Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  185. Guangdong Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention
  186. Guangdong Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention; Guangdong Provincial Public Health
  187. Guangdong Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention; Guangdong Provinical Public Health
  188. Guangdong Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention;Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health
  189. Guangdong Provincial Institution of Public Health
  190. Guangdong Provincial Institution of Public Health, Guangdong Provinical Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  191. Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre
  192. Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre, Gandhinagar
  193. Gundersen Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory
  194. H Braga
  195. H Dr. Nelio Mendonca – Funchal
  196. H Evora
  197. H Garcia de Orta
  198. H Santarem
  199. Hangzhou Center for Disease and Control Microbiology Lab
  200. Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  201. Hangzhou Center for Diseases Control and Prevention
  202. Harborview Medical Center
  203. Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Public Health Laboratories
  204. Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Public Health Laboratories, Unit of Bioinformatics and Applied Genomics
  205. Hematology Laboratory, Section of Molecular Diagnostics, University Clinical Centre, Medical University of Gdansk
  206. HI Dept. of Health, State Laboratories Division
  207. Hong Kong Department of Health
  208. Hopital franco britannique – Laboratoire
  209. Hopital Instruction des Armees – BEGIN
  210. Hopital Robert Debre Laboratoire de Virologie
  211. Hopitaux universitaires de Geneve Laboratoire de Virologie
  212. HOSPITAL DE CRUCES.
  213. Hospital de Talca, Chile
  214. HOSPITAL GENERAL DE SEGOVIA
  215. Hospital General Regional No.66, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua.
  216. Hospital General y Universitario de Guadalajara
  217. Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein
  218. Hospital of Southern Norway – Kristiansand, Department of Medical Microbiology
  219. Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca, EPE
  220. Hospital San Pedro
  221. HOSPITAL SANTA MARIA NAI
  222. Hospital Sao Joaquim Beneficencia Portuguesa
  223. HOSPITAL TXAGORRITXU
  224. Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol/Fundacio Lluita contra la SIDA /IRTA-CReSA
  225. Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron – Vall d’Hebron Research Institute
  226. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
  227. Hospital Universitario de Canarias
  228. HOSPITAL UNIVERSITARIO LA PAZ
  229. Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal
  230. HOSPITAL UNIVERSITARIO VIRGEN DE LAS NIEVES
  231. HSE Ilha Terceira – Angra do Heroismo
  232. Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  233. Human Genetic Research Center
  234. HUS Diagnostiikkakeskus, Hallinto
  235. IA State Hygienic Laboratory
  236. ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases
  237. IL Department of Public Health Chicago Laboratory
  238. Illinois Department of Public Health Chicago Laboratory
  239. IN State Department of Health Laboratory Services
  240. Indian Council of Medical Research – National Institute of Virology
  241. Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology
  242. Infectious Disease Control Center
  243. Infectious Disease Research Department, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center
  244. INMI Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS
  245. Insepction Center of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  246. Inspection Center of Hanghzou Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  247. Inspection Center of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  248. Instirut Pasteur Dakar
  249. Institut des Agents Infectieux Hospices Civils de Lyon
  250. Institut des Agents Infectieux , Hospices Civils de Lyon
  251. Institut Medico legal- Hop R. Poincare
  252. Institut Pasteur Dakar
  253. Institut Pasteur de Dakar
  254. Institute for Medical Research, Infectious Disease Research Centre, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  255. Institute information KU Leuven, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology
  256. Institute of Applied Biotechnologies a.s.
  257. Institute of Environmental Science and Research
  258. Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich
  259. Institute of Microbiology Universidad San Francisco de Quito
  260. Institute of Microbiology, Universidad San Francisco de Quito
  261. Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
  262. Institute of Virology, Biomedical Research Center of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava; Comenius University Science Park, Bratislava
  263. Institute of Virology, Biomedical Research Center of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava; Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava
  264. Instituto Adolfo Lutz Interdisciplinary Procedures Center Strategic Laboratory
  265. Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Interdiciplinary Procedures Center, Strategic Laboratory
  266. Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Interdisciplinary Procedures Center, Strategic Laboratory
  267. Instituto de Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos
  268. Instituto de Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos
  269. Instituto de Salud Carlos III
  270. Instituto de Salud Publica de Chile
  271. Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia
  272. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion
  273. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran
  274. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias
  275. Instituto Nacional de Salud
  276. Instituto Nacional de Salud Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia Instituto Alexander von Humboldt Imperial College-London London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
  277. Instituto Nacional de Salud, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Imperial College-London, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
  278. Instituto Nacional de Saude
  279. Instituto Octavio Magalhaes / Fundacao Ezequiel Dias
  280. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ – Laboratory of Respiratory Viruses and Measles
  281. Instituto Sabin
  282. IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Lab
  283. Ishikawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science
  284. Israel Institute for Biological Research
  285. Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e Molise “G. Caporale”
  286. Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e Molise “G.Caporale”
  287. Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo e Molise G. Caporale
  288. Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie
  289. Jaber Al Ahmad Al Sabah Hospital
  290. JABER AL AHMAD AL SABAH HOSPITAL KUWAIT CITY
  291. James Molecular Lab – OSUWMC
  292. Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control & Prevention
  293. Jiangxi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  294. Kabara Cancer Research Institute
  295. Key Laboratory of Human Diseases, Comparative Medicine, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science
  296. Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology
  297. Klinik Hirslanden Zurich
  298. Klinisk mikrobiologi och vardhygien Halmstad
  299. Klinisk mikrobiologi Orebro
  300. Klinisk mikrobiologi, Region Vasterbotten
  301. Kochi Prefectural Institute of Public Health
  302. Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Center for Laboratory Control of Infectious Diseases Division of Viral Diseases
  303. KRISP, KZN Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform
  304. KS Health and Environmental Laboratories
  305. KU Leuven, Clincal and Epidemiological Virology
  306. KU Leuven, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology
  307. L’Air du Temps
  308. LA Office of Public Health Laboratories
  309. Lab voor klinische biologie
  310. LABM GH nord Essonne
  311. LABM GH nord Essonne de Longjumeau – BP 125
  312. Labo BM – Site de Juvisy – Hopital General
  313. Laboiratorio Fleury
  314. Laboratoire de Virologie Institut de Virologie – INSERM U 1109 Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg
  315. Laboratoire de Virologie, HUG
  316. Laboratoire National de Sante
  317. Laboratoire National de Sante, Microbiology, Epidemiology and Microbial Genomics
  318. Laboratoire National de Sante, Microbiology, Virology
  319. Laboratoire Nationale de Sante, Microbiology, Epidemiology and Microbial Genomics
  320. Laboratoire Nationale de Sante, Microbiology, Virology
  321. Laboratoire Virpath, CIRI U111, UCBL1, INSERM, CNRS, ENS Lyon
  322. Laboratoriemedicin
  323. Laboratorio Analisis Clinicos, Unidad de Servicios Diagnosticos, Swiss Medical Group
  324. Laboratorio Central de Epidemiologia-DLVIE / Laboratorio de Secuenciacion-Centro de Instrumentos. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
  325. Laboratorio Central de Saude Publica Professor Goncalo Moniz LACEN/BA
  326. Laboratorio de Ecologia de Doencas Transmissiveis na Amazonia, Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane – Fiocruz Amazonia
  327. Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Biotecnologia y Biologia Molecular.Instituto Nacional de Salud.Peru
  328. Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Virus Respiratorio. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Peru
  329. Laboratorio de Virologia del Hospital de Ninos Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez
  330. Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano
  331. Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica del Estado de Mexico
  332. Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica del Estado de Puebla
  333. Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica del Estado de Queretaro
  334. Laboratorio Hermes Pardini
  335. Laboratorio Simili
  336. Laboratory for Functional Genome Analysis, Dept. Genomics, Gene Center of the LMU Munich
  337. Laboratory Medicine
  338. Laboratory of Biology, Department of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace
  339. Laboratory of Biology, Department of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
  340. Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences L. Sacco, University of Milan
  341. Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
  342. Laboratory of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  343. Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Diagnostyka sp. z o.o.
  344. Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
  345. Laboratory of Molecular Virology International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  346. Laboratory of Molecular Virology International Center fro Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  347. Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
  348. Laboratory of Recombinant Vaccines
  349. Laboratory of Virology
  350. Laboratory of Virology, INMI Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS
  351. LACEN RJ – Laboratorio Central de Saude Publica Noel Nutels
  352. LACEN-AL – Laboratorio Central de Alagoas
  353. LACEN-BA – Laboratorio Central de Saude Publica Professor Goncalo Moniz
  354. LACEN-SC – Laboratorio Central de Santa Catarina
  355. LACEN/ES – Laboratorio Central de Saude Publica do Espirito Santo
  356. Lapland Central Hospital
  357. Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre
  358. Le Chateau de Seine-Port
  359. Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong
  360. MA State Public Health Laboratory
  361. Maison de Sante du Val d’Ormois
  362. Malaysia Genome Institute
  363. Mason Lab
  364. Massachusetts Department of Public Health
  365. Mater Pathology
  366. Max von Pettenkofer Institute, Virology, National Reference Center for Retroviruses, LMU Munich
  367. MD DOH Laboratories Administration
  368. MHC Drente
  369. MHC Flevoland
  370. MHC Gooi & Vechtstreek
  371. MHC Kennemerland
  372. MHC Utrecht
  373. MHC West-Brabant
  374. Microbial Genomics Core Lab, National Taiwan University Centers of Genomic and Precision Medicine
  375. Microbial Genomics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur Monteivdeo
  376. Microbial Genomics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur Montevideo
  377. Microbial Genomics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur Montevideo, Uruguay
  378. Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory
  379. Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory and Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute
  380. Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory and Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity
  381. Microbiology and Immunology
  382. Microbiology and Immunology department
  383. Microbiology, Virology and Biemergency Laboratory-ASST FBF Sacco
  384. Ministry of Health Turkey
  385. Minnesota Department of Health, Public Health Laboratory
  386. MO State Public Health Laboratory
  387. Molecular Diagnostic Services
  388. Molecular Diagnostic Services and FLowpath
  389. Monash Medical Centre
  390. Motol University Hospital
  391. MRCG at LSHTM Genomics Lab
  392. MRCG at LSHTM Geomics lab
  393. MSHS Clinical Microbiology Laboratories
  394. MSHS Pathogen Surveillance Program
  395. National Centre for Infectious Diseases
  396. National Centre for Infectious Diseases, National Centre for Infectious Diseases
  397. National Influenza Center – Instituto Adolfo Lutz
  398. National Influenza Center – National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
  399. National Influenza Center, Indian Council of Medical Research – National Institute of Virology
  400. National Influenza Center, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology
  401. National Influenza Center, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
  402. National Influenza Centre, National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal
  403. National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  404. National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service
  405. National Institute for Viral Disease Control & Prevention, CCDC
  406. National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC
  407. National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
  408. National Institute of Health. Department of medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
  409. National Microbiology Laboratory
  410. National Public Health Laboratory
  411. National Public Health Laboratory, National Centre for Infectious Diseases
  412. National Reference Center for Viruses of Respiratory Infections, Institut Pasteur, Paris
  413. National Research Center for Translational Medicine , Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine & Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center
  414. NC State Laboratory of Public Health
  415. NE Public Health Laboratory
  416. Nebraska Public Health Laboratory
  417. NewYork-Presbyterian & Mason Lab
  418. NH Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Labs
  419. NH Dept. of Health and Human Services Public Health Labs
  420. NHC Key laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Institute of Pathogenic Microbiology
  421. NIC Viral Respiratory Unit – Institut Pasteur of Algeria
  422. NJ Public Health and Environmental Laboratories
  423. NMIMR, Department of Virology
  424. Norwegian Institute of Public Health
  425. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Virology
  426. NSW Health Pathology – Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research; Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services; Westmead Hospital; University of Sydney
  427. NSW Health Pathology – Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research; Westmead Hospital; University of Sydney
  428. NV State Public Health Laboratory
  429. NV-Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory
  430. NYU Langone Health
  431. Ochsner Health
  432. OH Department of Health Laboratory
  433. Onderzoeksgroep Virologie
  434. Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion
  435. OR State PHL-Virology/Immunology Section
  436. Oregon State Public Health- Virology section
  437. Oslo University Hospital, Department of Medical Microbiology
  438. Ospedale Civile Castel Di Sangro
  439. Ospedale Civile Giuseppe Mazzini
  440. Ospedale Civile Giuseppe Mazzini, Teramo
  441. Ospedale Civile S. Liberatore di Atri
  442. Ospedale Regionale San Salvatore
  443. Ospedale San Liberatore di Atri
  444. OSU Wexner Medical Center
  445. PA Department of Health, Bureau of Laboratories
  446. Parc des Dames
  447. Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  448. Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  449. Pathogen Sequencing Lab, National Institute for Biomedical Research
  450. Pathogenic Microorganisms Variability Laboratory
  451. Pathology Queensland
  452. PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA
  453. Praram 9 Hospital
  454. Presidio Ospedaliero “S. Spirito” – PESCARA
  455. Presidio ospedaliero “Santo Spirito”
  456. Presidio Ospedaliero Santo Spirito
  457. Prince of Wales Hospital
  458. Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School
  459. Providence Regional Medical Center
  460. Public Health Agency of Canada – National Microbiology Laboratory
  461. Public Health Laboratory
  462. Public Health Ontario
  463. Public Health Ontario Laboratories
  464. Public Health Ontario Laboratory
  465. Public Health Virology Laboratory
  466. Public Health Wales Microbiology Cardiff
  467. Queen Elizabeth Hospital
  468. Queen Elizabeth II Health Science Centre
  469. Queens Medical Centre, Clinical Microbiology Department / DeepSeq Nottingham
  470. R. G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research, National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia.
  471. Ramathibodi Hospital
  472. Regional Virus Laboratory, Belfast
  473. Research Institute for Tropical Medicine
  474. Residence les Marines
  475. Residence Villa Caroline
  476. Respiratory Virus Unit, Microbiology Services Colindale, Public Health England
  477. RI State Health Laboratories
  478. RI State Health Laboratory
  479. RIVM
  480. Rockhampton Base Hospital
  481. Roy Romanow Provincial Laboratory
  482. Royal Darwin Hospital
  483. Royal Darwin Hospital Pathology
  484. Russian State Collection of Viruses
  485. Saitama Medical University
  486. Saitama Medical University Hospital
  487. Saitama Prefectural Institute of Public Health
  488. Santa Clara County Public Health Department
  489. SC Dept of Health and Env. Control-Bureau of Laboratories
  490. School of Public Health, The University of Hon g Kong
  491. School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong
  492. Seattle Flu Study
  493. Secretaria de Salud Medellin
  494. Sentinelles network
  495. Sequencing and Bioinformatics Service and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group. FISABIO-Public Health
  496. Sequencing and Bioinformatics Service. Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory. FISABIO-Public Health
  497. Serology, Virology and OTDS Laboratories , NSW Health Pathology Randwick
  498. Service de Biologie clinique
  499. Service de Biologie Medicale – BP 125
  500. Service des Urgences
  501. Servicio de Microbiologia. Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia
  502. Servicio de Microbiologia. Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valencia
  503. Servicio Microbiologia. Hospital Clinico Universitario. Valencia.
  504. Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  505. Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University
  506. Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital
  507. Singapore General Hospital
  508. Singapore General Hospital, Molecular Laboratory, Division of Pathology
  509. Sir M P Shah Government Medical College
  510. Sir M P Shah Government Medical College, Jamnagar
  511. Sorbonne Universite, Inserm et Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris
  512. State Health Office Baden-Wuerttemberg
  513. State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China 310003
  514. State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. 310003
  515. State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
  516. State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University
  517. State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Department of Collection of Microorganisms
  518. State Veterinary Institute Prague
  519. Statens Serum Institute
  520. Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology
  521. Swiss National Reference Centre for Influenza
  522. Tai Lung Veterinary Laboratory, Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department
  523. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control
  524. Takayuki Hishiki Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health
  525. Takayuki Hishiki Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Department of Microbiology
  526. Technology Centre, Guangzhou Customs
  527. Texas Department of State Health Services
  528. Texas Department of State Health Services Lab Services
  529. Texas DSHS Lab Services
  530. TGen North
  531. Thai National Influenza Center, Department of medical Science, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
  532. The Central Hospital Of Wuhan
  533. The Chaim Sheba Medical Center
  534. The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University & BGI-Shenzhen
  535. The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
  536. The National Institute of Public Health Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology
  537. The National University Hospital of Iceland
  538. The Ohio State University
  539. The Ohio State University James Molecular lab
  540. The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
  541. The Ohio State University-James Molecular Lab at Polaris
  542. The Public Health Agency of Sweden
  543. The University of Hong Kong – Shenzhen Hospital
  544. The University of Hong Kong
  545. Tianmen Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  546. TSGH-CP molecular lab
  547. UCD National Virus Reference Laboratory
  548. UCSF Clinical Microbiology Laboratory
  549. ULSS9 Distretto di Bussolengo
  550. Unilabs Skovde
  551. Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
  552. Unit for Biological Agents, Department for CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency
  553. Unit for Laboratory Development and Technology Transfer, Public Health Agency of Sweden
  554. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ
  555. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  556. University Hospital Basel, Clinical Bacteriology
  557. University Hospital Basel, Clinical Virology
  558. University Hospital Basel, Labormedizin
  559. University Hospital of Northern Norway, Department for Microbiology and Infectious Disease Control
  560. University Hospitals of Geneva Laboratory of Virology
  561. University of Otago
  562. University of Washington Virology Lab
  563. University of Wisconsin – Madison: Influenza Research Institute
  564. University of Wisconsin Madison, AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratories
  565. University of Wisconsin-Madison AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratories
  566. UNMC COVID-19 Response Team
  567. Utah Public Health Laboratory
  568. UW Virology Lab
  569. VA DCLS
  570. VA-Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services
  571. Vaccine Research, Development and Application Center, Erciyes University
  572. Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory
  573. Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory and Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory, Doherty Institute
  574. Viral Respiratory Lab, National Institute for Biomedical Research
  575. Virginia Division of Consolidated Laboratories
  576. ViroGenetics – BSL3 Laboratory of Virology; Human Genome Variation Research Group & Genomics Centre MCB; Bioinformatics Research Group
  577. ViroGenetics – BSL3 Laboratory of Virology; Human Genome Variation Research Group & Genomics Centre MCB; Bioinformatics Research Group Department of Virology
  578. ViroGenetics – BSL3 Laboratory of Virology; Human Genome Variation Research Group & Genomics Centre MCB; Bioinformatics Research Group; Wojewodzka Stacja Sanitarno-Epidemiologiczna w Krakowie
  579. Virological Research Group, Szentagothai Research Centre
  580. Virological Research Group, Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs
  581. Virology and Legal Medicine Laboratories, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, University Politecnica delle Marche
  582. Virology Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, NHS Lothian / School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh / Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh
  583. Virology Department, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
  584. Virology laboratory Ministry of Health Kuwait sequenced at Dasman Diabetes Institute
  585. Virology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, University Politecnica delle Marche
  586. Virology Laboratory, Scientific Department, Army Medical Center
  587. Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge
  588. Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge.
  589. WA State Department of Health
  590. WACCBIP, University of Ghana
  591. Wadsworth Center, New York State Department.of Health
  592. Wales Specialist Virology Centre
  593. Washington State Department of Health
  594. Washington State Public Health Lab
  595. Wellington Hospital
  596. West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, NHSGGC / MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
  597. WHO National Influenza Centre Russian Federation
  598. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx Zoo
  599. Wisconsin Department of Health Services
  600. Wuhan Fourth Hospital
  601. Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  602. Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital
  603. Wuhan Lung Hospital yoming Public Health Laboratory
  604. Yale Clinical Virology Laboratory
  605. Yale COVID-19 Biorepository
  606. Yongchuan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  607. Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  608. Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention deCODE genetics
  609. Zhongxian Center for Disease Control and Prevention